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That relates to a very interesting deep ecological question: what is the evolutionary role or meaning behind the fact that when humans ingest a psychedelic plant that tickles certain brain receptors they have experiential access to profoundly meaningful altered states of consciousness? What is the evolutionary information-theoretical role of a plant molecule that interacts with specific brain receptors to give rise to a collective belief system? Naturalistically speaking, it’s mind-blowing. How do we explain this?

The point you’re making is the plant is ingested and it grows into a culture. It’s not just an individual experience, it’s a culture. You could think of a culture as like a moss or a forest. So what do you think can be brought from indigenous psychedelic healing into western psychedelic healing?

It’s a challenging question because bringing ayahuasca into a western scientific context evokes a lot of resistance among traditionalists who argue that this will never work, as long as we don’t adopt the indigenous belief systems or at least have a shaman guiding the process, ayahuasca alone will have absolutely no or even undesired effects. I have a different and more pragmatic opinion on this, because as a physician I have a clear ethical mission to reduce human suffering, and I believe that ayahuasca has some therapeutic potential to reduce human suffering. The West probably has to invent its own ayahuasca context – we can’t just transplant the whole shamanic belief system from the Amazon into western societies. We have to find a new way how to make sense of ayahuasca in our culture, for our minds, and with our belief systems. To that, we should stay pragmatic and not dogmatic. Probably ayahuasca will work completely differently in the West compared to the traditional use in the Amazon. That’s the idea behind evolution: To take something out of its original context, and put it in an entirely different context with totally different results. I have huge respect for indigenous cultures because they went through a long process of evolutionary adaptation – they experimented with ayahuasca for hundreds of years and found meaningful ways to work with that medicine. Although this body of knowledge and experience is impressive, it might not be the only meaningful way of working with ayahuasca.

There may be ritual elements which may be universal – if a brain enters a trance state it may make sense to play some rhythmic music, or provide some sort of container or safe setting for the loss of control. These are the elements we need to adapt. I have no definite solution for this, I’m still collecting ideas at an initial brain-storming stage.
We’re preparing a standardised botanical extract as an analogue to ayahuasca for our studies in Zurich. We’re also preparing a psychotherapeutic framework in which ayahuasca could be used. From what I have experienced on my ethnobotanical expeditions to South America, I believe that ayahuasca has the potential to become a valuable psychotherapeutic tool. Several patients that I’m treating within the standard biomedical paradigm could benefit from an experimental psychotherapy session with ayahuasca.
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Posted on March 19, 2018 by Jules Evans

Psychosis. Scary word isn’t it? These days we think nothing less of a person if they publicly disclose they get depression, or anxiety. We applaud them for being brave, but they’re not really risking anything. But admit you get psychotic episodes…that you hear voices…that you see things others don’t see? Maybe some of us start to edge away.

utilitarianism Definition in the Cambridge English Dictionary High Rise Cropped Skinny Jean with Raw Hem L8 allison Levis l6O2fdR
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“utilitarianism” in English

utilitarianism noun [ U ]

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We are, in this age of , getting rather bad at designations and titles; we are rather dull and monotonous.
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Lifeboat ethics is closely related to environmental ethics, , and issues of resource depletion.
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The fifth chapter concludes the essay with a discussion of problems concerning , as well as the concept of justice.
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He can be said to have removed obstacles for the coming .
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He is regarded as the founder of modern .
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Foss contrasts this concept of creation with the commonly accepted ethic of that is prevalent in modern societies.
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He starts with an assessment of , with which he accepts seven commonly cited flaws.
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Rule states that the morally right action is the one that is in accordance with a moral rule whose general observance would create the most happiness.
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He is critical of and the traditional feminist ethics of care.
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To understand how act works, compare the consequences of your watching television all day tomorrow to the consequences of your doing charity work tomorrow.
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One implication of is that one's intention in performing an act may include all of its foreseen consequences.
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Act maintains that an action is right if it maximises utility; rule maintains that an action is right if it conforms to a rule that maximises utility.
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He denounces economism, in social sciences, consumer society and the notion of sustainable development.
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He points out that relies on specialization and materialism, and that consequently, the wealth of our minds is affected.
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Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, articles were published both for and against the new form of , and through this debate the theory we now call rule was created.
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Translations of “utilitarianism”

實用主義, 功利主義…

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EU Building Stock Observatory

The EU Building Stock Observatory monitors the energy performance of buildings across Europe.

Nearly zero-energy buildings

The EU has set a target for all new buildings to be nearly zero-energy by 2020.

Certificates and inspections

Energy performance certificates provide information on the energy efficiency of buildings and recommended improvements.

Financing renovations

Financial support mechanisms in EU countries can help pay for energy efficient renovations

Buildings are responsible for approximately 40% of energy consumption and 36% of CO2 emissions in the EU. Currently, about 35% of the EU's buildings are over 50 years old and almost 75% of the building stock is energy efficient, while only 0.4-1.2% (depending on the country) of the building stock is renovated each year. Therefore, more renovation of existing buildings has the potential to lead to significant energy savings – potentially reducing the EU’s total energy consumption by 5-6% and lowering CO emissions by about 5%.Improving the energy efficiency of buildings can also generate other economic, social and environmental benefits. Better performing buildings provide higher levels of comfort and wellbeing for their occupants, and improve health by reducing illnesses caused by a poor indoor climate. It also has a major impact on the affordability of housing and on the concept of energy poverty. Improvement of the energy performance of the housing stock and the energy savings it brings would enable many households to escape energy poverty .Investments in energy efficiency also stimulate the economy, in particular the construction industry, which generates about 9% of Europe’s GDP and directly accounts for 18 million direct jobs. SMEs would particularly benefit from a boosted renovation market, as they contribute more than 70% of the value added in the EU building sector.

Main EU policies

The 2010 Energy Performance of Buildings Directive and the 2012 Energy Efficiency Directive are the EU's main legislative instruments promoting the improvement of the energy performance of buildings within the EU and providing a stable environment for investment decisions to be taken. As Directives, they needed to be transposed by Member States into national legislation.The 2010 Energy Performance of Buildings Directive has made it possible for consumers to make informed choices that will help them save energy and money, and has resulted in a positive change of trends in the energy performance of buildings. Following the introduction of energy efficiency requirements in national building codes in line with the Directive, new buildings today consume only half as much as typical buildings from the 1980s.On 30 November 2016, as part of the Clean Energy for All Europeans package , the Commission proposed an update to the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive to help promote the use of smart technology in buildings, to streamline existing rules and accelerate building renovation. The Commission also published a new buildings database – the EU Building Stock Observatory – to track the energy performance of buildings across Europe. In order to direct investment towards the renovation of building stock, the Commission also launched the Smart Finance for Smart Buildings initiative, which has the potential to unlock an additional €10 billion of public and private funds for energy efficiency and renewables uptake in buildings.

On 19 June 2018 Directive (2018/844/EU) amending the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive was published. The revised provisionswill enter into force on 9 July 2018. This revision introduces targeted amendments to the current Directive aimed at accelerating the cost-effective renovation of existing buildings, with the vision of a decarbonised building stock by 2050 and the mobilisation of investments. The revision also supports electromobility infrastructure deployment in buildings' car parks and introduces new provisions to enhance smart technologies and technical building systems, including automation.

Member States will have 20 months to transpose its provisions into national law (namely by 10 March 2020).

Under thenew, revisedEnergy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD)

Under the current Energy Performance of Buildings Directive

National reports on energy performance requirements

EU countries have calculated the cost-optimal minimum energy performance requirements for new as well as renovated buildings in their territory. These requirements must be reviewed every five years and, if necessary, updated in order to reflect technological progress in the building sector.

Buildings under the current Energy Efficiency Directive

Practical support initiatives

To help EU countries properly implement the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive ((EU) 2018/844) and to achieve energy efficiency targets, the European Commission has established practical support initiatives: The Energy Performance of Buildings standards (EPB standards).

These include a set of standards for a common methodology calculating the integrated energy performance of buildings, in accordance with the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive.

long-term renovation strategies

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